In simple terms, linear regression is a
method of finding the best straight line fitting to the given data, i.e.
finding the best linear relationship between the independent and dependent
In technical terms, linear regression is a machine learning algorithm that finds the best linear-fit relationship on any given data, between independent and dependent variables. It is mostly done by the Sum of Squared Residuals Method.
What are the important assumptions of Linear regression?
Following are the assumptions
A linear Relationship – Firstly, there has to be a linear relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. To check this relationship, a scatter plot proves to be useful.
Restricted Multi-collinearity value – Secondly, there must no or very little multi-collinearity between the independent variables in the dataset. The value needs to be restricted, which depends on the domain requirement.
Homoscedasticity – The third is the homoscedasticity. It is one of the most important assumptions which states that the errors are equally distributed. To Know more about assumption click here
What is heteroscedasticity?
Heteroscedasticity is exactly the opposite of homoscedasticity, which means that the error terms are not equally distributed. To correct this phenomenon, usually, a log function is used.
What is the difference between R
square and adjusted R square?
R square and adjusted R square values are used for model validation in case of linear regression. R square indicates the variation of all the independent variables on the dependent variable. I.e. it considers all the independent variable to explain the variation. In the case of Adjusted R squared, it considers only significant variables (P values less than 0.05) to indicate the percentage of variation in the model. To know more about R square and adjusted R squareclick here.
Can we use linear regression for time series analysis?
One can use linear regression for time series
analysis, but the results are not promising. So, it is generally not advisable
to do so. The reasons behind this are.
series data is mostly used for the prediction of the future, but linear
regression seldom gives good results for future prediction as it is not meant
time series data have a pattern, such as during peak hours, festive seasons,
etc., which would most likely be treated as outliers in the linear regression
What is VIF? How do you calculate it?
Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) is used to check the presence of multicollinearity in a data set. It is calculated as
Here, VIFj is the value of VIF for the jth variable, Rj2 is the R2 value of the model when that variable is regressed against all the other independent variables.
If the value of VIF is high for a variable, it implies that the R2 value of the corresponding model is high, i.e. other independent variables are able to explain that variable. In simple terms, the variable is linearly dependent on some other variables.
How to find RMSE and MSE?
and MSE are the two of the most common measures of accuracy for a linear
RMSE indicates the Root mean square error, which indicated by the formula:
Where MSE indicates the Mean square error represented by the formula:
How to interpret a Q-Q plot in a Linear regression model?
A Q-Q plot is used to check the normality of errors. In the above chart mentioned, Majority of the data follows a normal distribution with tails curled. This shows that the errors are mostly normally distributed but some observations may be due to significantly higher/lower values are affecting the normality of errors.
What is the
significance of an F-test in a linear model?
The use of F-test is to test the goodness of the model. When the model is re-iterated to improve the accuracy with changes, the F-test values prove to be useful in terms of understanding the effect of overall regression.
What are the disadvantages of the linear model?
Linear regression is sensitive to outliers which may affect
You run your regression on different subsets of your data, and in each subset, the beta value for a certain variable varies wildly. What could be the issue here?
This case implies that the dataset is heterogeneous. So, to overcome this problem, the dataset should be clustered into different subsets, and then separate models should be built for each cluster. Another way to deal with this problem is to use non-parametric models, such as decision trees, which can deal with heterogeneous data quite efficiently.
Which graphs are suggested to be observed before model fitting?
Before fitting the model, one must be well aware of the data, such as what the trends, distribution, skewness, etc. in the variables are. Graphs such as histograms, box plots, and dot plots can be used to observe the distribution of the variables. Apart from this, one must also analyse what the relationship between dependent and independent variables is. This can be done by scatter plots (in case of univariate problems), rotating plots, dynamic plots, etc .
Explain the bias-variance trade-off.
Bias refers to the difference between the values
predicted by the model and the real values. It is an error. One of the goals of
an ML algorithm is to have a low bias.
Variance refers to the sensitivity of the model to small fluctuations in the
training dataset. Another goal of an ML algorithm is to have low variance.
For a dataset that is not exactly linear, it is not possible to have both bias
and variance low at the same time. A straight line model will have low variance
but high bias, whereas a high-degree polynomial will have low bias but high
There is no escaping the relationship between
bias and variance in machine learning.
Decreasing the bias increases the
Decreasing the variance increases the
So, there is a trade-off between the two; the ML specialist has to decide, based on the assigned problem, how much bias and variance can be tolerated. Based on this, the final model is built.
What is MAE and RMSE and what is the difference between the matrices?
Mean Absolute Error (MAE): MAE measures the average magnitude of the errors in a set of predictions, without considering their direction. It’s the average over the test sample of the absolute differences between prediction and actual observation where all individual differences have equal weight.
Root mean squared error (RMSE): RMSE is a quadratic scoring rule that also measures the average magnitude of the error. It’s the square root of the average of squared differences between prediction and actual observation.
Taking the square root of the average squared errors has some interesting implications for RMSE. Since the errors are squared before they are averaged, the RMSE gives a relatively high weight to large errors. This means the RMSE should be more useful when large errors are particularly undesirable.
From an interpretation standpoint, MAE is clearly the winner. RMSE does
not describe average error alone and has other implications that are more
difficult to tease out and understand.
On the other hand, one distinct advantage of RMSE over MAE is that RMSE avoids the use of taking the absolute value, which is undesirable in many mathematical calculations.
Data Science is a combination of algorithms, tools, and machine learning technique which helps you to find common hidden patterns from the given raw data.
2. What are the differences between supervised and unsupervised learning?
Uses known and labeled data as input
Uses unlabeled data as input
Supervised learning has a feedback mechanism
Unsupervised learning has no feedback mechanism
The most commonly used supervised learning algorithms are decision trees, logistic regression, and support vector machine
The most commonly used unsupervised learning algorithms are k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, and apriori algorithm
3. What do you understand by linear regression?
Linear regression helps in understanding the linear relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. Linear regression is a supervised learning algorithm, which helps in finding the linear relationship between two variables. One is the predictor or the independent variable and the other is the response or the dependent variable. In Linear Regression, we try to understand how the dependent variable changes w.r.t the independent variable. If there is only one independent variable, then it is called simple linear regression, and if there is more than one independent variable then it is known as multiple linear regression.
4. How do you find RMSE and MSE in a linear regression model?
RMSE and MSE are two of the most common measures of accuracy for a linear regression model. RMSE indicates the Root Mean Square Error.
MSE indicates the Mean Square Error.
5. How is logistic regression done?
Logistic regression measures the relationship between the dependent variable (our label of what we want to predict) and one or more independent variables (our features) by estimating probability using its underlying logistic function (sigmoid).
The image shown below depicts how logistic regression works:
The formula and graph for the sigmoid function are as shown:
6. What is the Sigmoid Function?
It is a mathematical function having a characteristic that can take any real value and map it to between 0 to 1 shaped like the letter “S”. The sigmoid function also called a logistic function.
So, if the value of z goes to positive infinity then the predicted value of y will become 1 and if it goes to negative infinity then the predicted value of y will become 0. And if the outcome of the sigmoid function is more than 0.5 then we classify that label as class 1 or positive class and if it is less than 0.5 then we can classify it to negative class or label as class 0.
7. Why do we use the Sigmoid Function?
Sigmoid Function acts as an activation function in machine learning which is used to add non-linearity in a machine learning model, in simple words it decides which value to pass as output and what not to pass.
8. How will you explain linear regression to a non-tech person?
Linear Regression is a statistical technique of measuring the linear relationship between the two variables. By linear relationship, we mean that an increase in a variable would lead to increase in the other variable and a decrease in one variable would lead to attenuation in the second variable as well. Based on this linear relationship, we establish a model that predicts the future outcomes based on an increase in one variable.
9. Explain how a ROC curve works?
The ROC curve is a graphical representation of the contrast between true positive rates and false-positive rates at various thresholds. It is often used as a proxy for the trade-off between the sensitivity (true positive rate) and false-positive rate
10. What is Precision, Recall, Accuracy and F1-score?
Once you have built a classification model, you need evaluate how good the predictions made by that model are. So, how do you define ‘good’ predictions?
There are some performance metrics which help us improve our models. Let us explore the differences between them for a binary classification problem:
Consider the following Confusion Matrix for a classification problem which predicts whether a patient has Cancer or not for 100 patients:
Now, the following are the fundamental metrics for the above data:
Precision: It is implied as the measure of the correctly identified positive cases from all the predicted positive cases. Thus, it is useful when the costs of False Positives is high.
Recall: It is the measure of the correctly identified positive cases from all the actual positive cases. It is important when the cost of False Negatives is high.
Accuracy: One of the more obvious metrics, it is the measure of all the correctly identified cases. It is most used when all the classes are equally important.
Now for our above example, suppose that there only 30 patients who actually have cancer. What if our model identifies 25 of those as having cancer?
The accuracy in this case is = 90% which is a high enough number for the model to be considered as ‘accurate’. However, there are 5 patients who actually have cancer and the model predicted that they don’t have it. Obviously, this is too high a cost. Our model should try to minimize these False Negatives. For these cases, we use the F1-score.
F1-score: This is the harmonic mean of Precision and Recall and gives a better measure of the incorrectly classified cases than the Accuracy Metric.
We use the Harmonic Mean since it penalizes the extreme values.
To summaries the differences between the F1-score and the accuracy,
Accuracy is used when the True Positives and True negatives are more important while F1-score is used when the False Negatives and False Positives are crucial
Accuracy can be used when the class distribution is similar while F1-score is a better metric when there are imbalanced classes as in the above case.
In most real-life classification problems, imbalanced class distribution exists and thus F1-score is a better metric to evaluate our model on.
11. How is AUC different from ROC?
AUC curve is a measurement of precision against the recall. Precision = TP/(TP + FP) and TP/(TP + FN). This is in contrast with ROC that measures and plots True Positive against False positive rate.
12. What is Selection Bias?
Selection bias is a kind of error that occurs when the researcher decides who is going to be studied. It is usually associated with research where the selection of participants isn’t random. It is sometimes referred to as the selection effect. It is the distortion of statistical analysis, resulting from the method of collecting samples. If the selection bias is not taken into account, then some conclusions of the study may not be accurate.
The types of selection bias include:
Sampling bias: It is a systematic error due to a non-random sample of a population causing some members of the population to be less likely to be included than others resulting in a biased sample.
Time interval: A trial may be terminated early at an extreme value (often for ethical reasons), but the extreme value is likely to be reached by the variable with the largest variance, even if all variables have a similar mean.
Data: When specific subsets of data are chosen to support a conclusion or rejection of bad data on arbitrary grounds, instead of according to previously stated or generally agreed criteria.
Attrition: Attrition bias is a kind of selection bias caused by attrition (loss of participants) discounting trial subjects/tests that did not run to completion
13. Differentiate between uni-variate, bi-variate, and multivariate analysis
Univariate data contains only one variable. The purpose of the univariate analysis is to describe the data and find patterns that exist within it.
Example: height of students.
The patterns can be studied by drawing conclusions using mean, median, mode, dispersion or range, minimum, maximum, etc.
Bivariate data involves two different variables. The analysis of this type of data deals with causes and relationships and the analysis is done to determine the relationship between the two variables.
Example: temperature and ice cream sales in the summer season. Here, the relationship is visible from the table that temperature and sales are directly proportional to each other. The hotter the temperature, the better the sales.
Multivariate data involves three or more variables, it is categorized under multivariate. It is similar to a bivariate but contains more than one dependent variable. Example: data for house price prediction. The patterns can be studied by drawing conclusions using mean, median, and mode, dispersion or range, minimum, maximum, etc. You can start describing the data and using it to guess what the price of the house will be.
14. Explain the steps in making a decision tree.
Following are the steps:
Step-1: Begin the tree with the root node, says S, which contains the complete dataset.
Step-2: Find the best attribute in the dataset using Attribute Selection Measure (ASM).
Step-3: Divide the S into subsets that contains possible values for the best attributes.
Step-4: Generate the decision tree node, which contains the best attribute.
Step-5: Recursively make new decision trees using the subsets of the dataset created in step -3. Continue this process until a stage is reached where you cannot further classify the nodes and called the final node as a leaf node.
For example, let’s say you want to build a decision tree to decide whether you should accept or decline a job offer. The decision tree for this case is as shown:
It is clear from the decision tree that an offer is accepted if:
Salary is greater than $50,000
The commute is less than an hour
Incentives are offered
Attribute Selection Measures:
While implementing a Decision tree, the main issue arises that how to select the best attribute for the root node and for sub-nodes. So, to solve such problems there is a technique which is called as Attribute selection measure or ASM. By this measurement, we can easily select the best attribute for the nodes of the tree. There are two popular techniques for ASM, which are:
Information gain is the measurement of changes in entropy after the segmentation of a dataset based on an attribute.
It calculates how much information a feature provides us about a class.
According to the value of information gain, we split the node and build the decision tree.
A decision tree algorithm always tries to maximize the value of information gain, and a node/attribute having the highest information gain is split first. It can be calculated using the below formula:
Information Gain= Entropy(S)- [(Weighted Avg) *Entropy(each feature)
Entropy: Entropy is a metric to measure the impurity in a given attribute. It specifies randomness in data. Entropy can be calculated as:
Entropy(s)= -P(yes)log2 P(yes)- P(no) log2 P(no)
S= Total number of samples
P(yes)= probability of yes
P(no)= probability of no
2. Gini Index:
Gini index is a measure of impurity or purity used while creating a decision tree in the CART(Classification and Regression Tree) algorithm.
An attribute with the low Gini index should be preferred as compared to the high Gini index.
It only creates binary splits, and the CART algorithm uses the Gini index to create binary splits.
Gini index can be calculated using the below formula:
Gini Index= 1- ∑jPj2
15. How do you build a random forest model?
A random forest is built up of a number of decision trees. If you split the data into different packages and make a decision tree in each of the different groups of data, the random forest brings all those trees together.
Steps to build a random forest model:
Randomly select ‘k’ features from a total of ‘m’ features where k << m
Among the ‘k’ features, calculate the node D using the best split point
Split the node into daughter nodes using the best split
Repeat steps two and three until leaf nodes are finalized
Build forest by repeating steps one to four for ‘n’ times to create ‘n’ number of trees
16. What is bias-variance trade-off?
Bias: Bias is an error introduced in your model due to oversimplification of the machine learning algorithm. It can lead to underfitting. When you train your model at that time model makes simplified assumptions to make the target function easier to understand.
Low bias machine learning algorithms — Decision Trees, k-NN and SVM High bias machine learning algorithms — Linear Regression, Logistic Regression
Variance: Variance is how much your model changes based on the changes in the input. It is an error introduced in your model due to complex machine learning algorithm, your model learns noise also from the training data set and performs badly on test data set. It can lead to high sensitivity and overfitting.
Bias-Variance trade-off: The goal of any supervised machine learning algorithm is to have low bias and low variance to achieve good prediction performance.
The k-nearest neighbour algorithm has low bias and high variance, but the trade-off can be changed by increasing the value of k which increases the number of neighbours that contribute to the prediction and in turn increases the bias of the model.
The support vector machine algorithm has low bias and high variance, but the trade-off can be changed by increasing the C parameter that influences the number of violations of the margin allowed in the training data which increases the bias but decreases the variance.
17. How can you avoid the overfitting your model?
Overfitting refers to a model that is only set for a very small amount of data and ignores the bigger picture. There are three main methods to avoid overfitting:
Keep the model simple – Take fewer variables into account, thereby removing some of the noise in the training data
Use cross-validation techniques, such as k folds cross-validation
Use regularization techniques, such as LASSO, that penalize certain model parameters if they’re likely to cause overfitting.
18. What is a confusion matrix?
The confusion matrix is a 2X2 table that contains 4 outputs provided by the binary classifier. Various measures, such as error-rate, accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, precision and recall are derived from it. Confusion Matrix.
A data set used for performance evaluation is called a test data set. It should contain the correct labels and predicted labels.
The predicted labels will exactly the same if the performance of a binary classifier is perfect.
The predicted labels usually match with part of the observed labels in real-world scenarios.
A binary classifier predicts all data instances of a test data set as either positive or negative. This produces four outcomes-
F-Score(Harmonic mean of precision and recall) = (1+b)(PREC.REC)/(b²PREC+REC) where b is commonly 0.5, 1, 2.
19. What is the difference between classification and regression?
Classification is used to produce discrete results, classification is used to classify data into some specific categories. For example, classifying emails into spam and non-spam categories.
Whereas, We use regression analysis when we are dealing with continuous data, for example predicting stock prices at a certain point in time.
20. What is meant by ‘Training set’ and ‘Test Set’?
We split the given data set into two different sections namely,’Training set’ and ‘Test Set’. ‘Training set’ is the portion of the dataset used to train the model.
‘Testing set’ is the portion of the dataset used to test the trained model.
21. How Do You Handle Missing or Corrupted Data in a Dataset?
One of the easiest ways to handle missing or corrupted data is to drop those rows or columns or replace them entirely with some other value.
There are two useful methods in Pandas:
IsNull() and dropna() will help to find the columns/rows with missing data and drop them
Fillna() will replace the wrong values with a placeholder value
22. What are the feature selection methods used to select the right variables?
Following are the technique to select features:
Principle component analysis(PCA)
Forward Selection: We test one feature at a time and keep adding them until we get a good fit.
Backward Selection: We test all the features and start removing them to see what works better
23.You are given a data set consisting of variables with more than 30 percent missing values. How will you deal with them?
The following are ways to handle missing data values:
If the data set is large, we can just simply remove the rows with missing data values. It is the quickest way; we use the rest of the data to predict the values.
For smaller data sets, we can substitute missing values with the mean or average of the rest of the data using the pandas’ data frame in python. There are different ways to do so, such as df.mean(), df.fillna(mean).
24. What do you understand by the term Normal Distribution?
Data is usually distributed in different ways with a bias to the left or to the right or it can all be jumbled up.
However, there are chances that data is distributed around a central value without any bias to the left or right and reaches normal distribution in the form of a bell-shaped curve.
The random variables are distributed in the form of a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve.
Properties of Normal Distribution are as follows;
Unimodal -one mode
Symmetrical -left and right halves are mirror images
Bell-shaped -maximum height (mode) at the mean
Mean, Mode, and Median are all located in the centre
25. What is the goal of A/B Testing?
It is a hypothesis testing for a randomized experiment with two variables A and B.
The goal of A/B Testing is to identify any changes to the web page to maximize or increase the outcome of interest. A/B testing is a fantastic method for figuring out the best online promotional and marketing strategies for your business. It can be used to test everything from website copy to sales emails to search ads
An example of this could be identifying the click-through rate for a banner ad.
26. What is p-value?
When you perform a hypothesis test in statistics, a p-value can help you determine the strength of your results. p-value is a number between 0 and 1. Based on the value it will denote the strength of the results. The claim which is on trial is called the Null Hypothesis.
Low p-value (≤ 0.05) indicates strength against the null hypothesis which means we can reject the null Hypothesis. High p-value (≥ 0.05) indicates strength for the null hypothesis which means we can accept the null Hypothesis p-value of 0.05 indicates the Hypothesis could go either way. To put it in another way, High P values: your data are likely with a true null. Low P values: your data are unlikely with a true null.
27. What are the differences between over-fitting and under-fitting?
In statistics and machine learning, one of the most common tasks is to fit a model to a set of training data, so as to be able to make reliable predictions on general untrained data.
In overfitting, a statistical model describes random error or noise instead of the underlying relationship. Overfitting occurs when a model is excessively complex, such as having too many parameters relative to the number of observations. A model that has been overfitted, has poor predictive performance, as it overreacts to minor fluctuations in the training data.
Underfitting occurs when a statistical model or machine learning algorithm cannot capture the underlying trend of the data. Underfitting would occur, for example, when fitting a linear model to non-linear data. Such a model too would have poor predictive performance.
28. How to combat Overfitting and Underfitting?
To combat overfitting and underfitting, you can resample the data to estimate the model accuracy (k-fold cross-validation) and by having a validation dataset to evaluate the model.
29. Explain cross-validation.
Cross-validation is a model validation technique for evaluating how the outcomes of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. It is mainly used in backgrounds where the objective is to forecast and one wants to estimate how accurately a model will accomplish in practice.
The goal of cross-validation is to term a data set to test the model in the training phase (i.e. validation data set) to limit problems like overfitting and gain insight into how the model will generalize to an independent data set.
30. What is k-fold cross-validation?
In k-fold cross-validation, we divide the dataset into k equal parts. After this, we loop over the entire dataset k times. In each iteration of the loop, one of the k parts is used for testing, and the other k − 1 parts are used for training. Using k-fold cross-validation, each one of the k parts of the dataset ends up being used for training and testing purposes.
31. How should you maintain a deployed model?
The steps to maintain a deployed model are:
Constant monitoring of all models is needed to determine their performance accuracy. When you change something, you want to figure out how your changes are going to affect things. This needs to be monitored to ensure it’s doing what it’s supposed to do.
Evaluation metrics of the current model are calculated to determine if a new algorithm is needed.
The new models are compared to each other to determine which model performs the best.
The best performing model is re-built on the current state of data.
32. What is ‘Naive’ in a Naive Bayes?
The Naive Bayes Algorithm is based on the Bayes Theorem. Bayes’ theorem describes the probability of an event, based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event.
The Algorithm is ‘naive’ because it makes assumptions that may or may not turn out to be correct.
33. Explain SVM algorithm in detail.
SVM stands for support vector machine, it is a supervised machine learning algorithm which can be used for both Regression and Classification. If you have n features in your training data set, SVM tries to plot it in n-dimensional space with the value of each feature being the value of a particular coordinate. SVM uses hyperplanes to separate out different classes based on the provided kernel function.
34. What are the support vectors in SVM?
In the diagram, we see that the thinner lines mark the distance from the classifier to the closest data points called the support vectors (darkened data points). The distance between the two thin lines is called the margin.
35. What are the different kernels in SVM?
There are four types of kernels in SVM:
Radial basis kernel
36. What is pruning in Decision Tree?
As the name implies, pruning involves cutting back the tree. Pruning is one of the techniques that is used to overcome our problem of Overfitting.
Pruning, in its literal sense, is a practice which involves the selective removal of certain parts of a tree(or plant), such as branches, buds, or roots, to improve the tree’s structure, and promote healthy growth. This is exactly what Pruning does to our Decision Trees as well. It makes it versatile so that it can adapt if we feed any new kind of data to it, thereby fixing the problem of overfitting. It reduces the size of a Decision Tree which might slightly increase your training error but drastically decrease your testing error, hence making it more adaptable.
37. What are Recommender Systems?
Recommender Systems are a subclass of information filtering systems that are meant to predict the preferences or ratings that a user would give to a product.
Recommender systems are widely used in movies, news, research articles, products, social tags, music, etc.Examples include movie recommenders in IMDB, Netflix & BookMyShow, product recommenders in e-commerce sites like Amazon, eBay & Flipkart, YouTube video recommendations and game recommendations in Xbox
38. What is Collaborative filtering?
The process of filtering used by most of the recommender systems to find patterns or information by collaborating viewpoints, various data sources and multiple agents.
An example of collaborative filtering can be to predict the rating of a particular user based on his/her ratings for other movies and others’ ratings for all movies. This concept is widely used in recommending movies in IMDB, Netflix & BookMyShow, product recommenders in e-commerce sites like Amazon, eBay & Flipkart, YouTube video recommendations and game recommendations in Xbox
39. How will you define the number of clusters in a clustering algorithm?
Though the Clustering Algorithm is not specified, this question is mostly in reference to K-Means clustering where “K” defines the number of clusters. The objective of clustering is to group similar entities in a way that the entities within a group are similar to each other but the groups are different from each other.
For example, the following image shows three different groups.
Within Sum of squares is generally used to explain the homogeneity within a cluster. If you plot WSS for a range of number of clusters, you will get the plot shown below.
The Graph is generally known as Elbow Curve.
Red circled a point in above graph i.e. Number of Cluster =6is the point after which you don’t see any decrement in WSS.
This point is known as the bending point and taken as K in K – Means.
This is the widely used approach but few data scientists also use Hierarchical clustering first to create dendrograms and identify the distinct groups from there.
40. Describe in brief any type of Ensemble Learning?
Ensemble learning has many types but two more popular ensemble learning techniques are mentioned below.
Bagging tries to implement similar learners on small sample populations and then takes a mean of all the predictions. In generalised bagging, you can use different learners on different population. As you expect this helps us to reduce the variance error.
Boosting is an iterative technique which adjusts the weight of an observation based on the last classification. If an observation was classified incorrectly, it tries to increase the weight of this observation and vice versa. Boosting in general decreases the bias error and builds strong predictive models. However, they may over fit on the training data.
41. What is a Box-Cox Transformation?
A Box cox transformation is a statistical technique to transform non-normal dependent variables into a normal shape. If the given data is not normal then most of the statistical techniques assume normality. Applying a box cox transformation means that you can run a broader number of tests.
A Box-Cox transformation is a way to transform non-normal dependent variables into a normal shape. Normality is an important assumption for many statistical techniques, if your data isn’t normal, applying a Box-Cox means that you are able to run a broader number of tests.
42. Explain Principle Component Analysis (PCA).
PCA is a method for transforming features in a dataset by combining them into uncorrelated linear combinations.
These new features, or principal components, sequentially maximize the variance represented (i.e. the first principal component has the most variance, the second principal component has the second most, and so on).
As a result, PCA is useful for dimensionality reduction because you can set an arbitrary variance cutoff.
43. How is KNN different from k-means clustering?
K-Nearest Neighbors is a supervised classification algorithm, while k-means clustering is an unsupervised clustering algorithm. While the mechanisms may seem similar at first, what this really means is that in order for K-Nearest Neighbors to work, you need labeled data you want to classify an unlabeled point into (thus the nearest neighbor part). K-means clustering requires only a set of unlabeled points and a threshold: the algorithm will take unlabeled points and gradually learn how to cluster them into groups by computing the mean of the distance between different points.
44. You’ve built a random forest model with 10000 trees. You got delighted after getting training error as 0.00. But, the validation error is 34.23. What is going on? Haven’t you trained your model perfectly?
The model has overfitted. Training error 0.00 means the classifier has mimicked the training data patterns to an extent, that they are not available in the unseen data. Hence, when this classifier was run on an unseen sample, it couldn’t find those patterns and returned predictions with higher error. In a random forest, it happens when we use a larger number of trees than necessary. Hence, to avoid this situation, we should tune the number of trees using cross-validation.
45. In k-means or kNN, we use euclidean distance to calculate the distance between nearest neighbors. Why not manhattan distance?
We don’t use manhattan distance because it calculates distance horizontally or vertically only. It has dimension restrictions. On the other hand, the euclidean metric can be used in any space to calculate distance. Since the data points can be present in any dimension, euclidean distance is a more viable option.
Example: Think of a chessboard, the movement made by a bishop or a rook is calculated by manhattan distance because of their respective vertical & horizontal movements.
46. When does regularization becomes necessary in Machine Learning?
Regularization becomes necessary when the model begins to overfit/underfit. This technique introduces a cost term for bringing in more features with the objective function. Hence, it tries to push the coefficients for many variables to zero and hence reduce the cost term. This helps to reduce model complexity so that the model can become better at predicting (generalizing).
47. When would you use random forests Vs SVM and why?
There are a couple of reasons why a random forest is a better choice of the model than a support vector machine:
Random forests allow you to determine the feature importance. SVM’s can’t do this.
Random forests are much quicker and simpler to build than an SVM.
For multi-class classification problems, SVMs require a one-vs-rest method, which is less scalable and more memory intensive.
48. Do you think 50 small decision trees are better than a large one? Why?
Another way of asking this question is “Is a random forest a better model than a decision tree?” And the answer is yes because a random forest is an ensemble method that takes many weak decision trees to make a strong learner. Random forests are more accurate, more robust, and less prone to overfitting.
49. What’s the Relationship between True Positive Rate and Recall?
The True positive rate in machine learning is the percentage of the positives that have been properly acknowledged, and recall is just the count of the results that have been correctly identified and are relevant. Therefore, they are the same things, just having different names. It is also known as sensitivity.
50. What are Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues?
Eigenvectors are used for understanding linear transformations. In data analysis, we usually calculate the eigenvectors for a correlation or covariance matrix. Eigenvectors are the directions along which a particular linear transformation acts by flipping, compressing or stretching.
Eigenvalue can be referred to as the strength of the transformation in the direction of eigenvector or the factor by which the compression occurs.
51. What is pickle module in Python?
For serializing and de-serializing an object in Python, we make use of pickle module. In order to save this object on drive, we make use of pickle. It converts an object structure into character stream.
52. How K-means clustering works? explain in details.
The first property of clusters – it states that the points within a cluster should be similar to each other. So, our aim here is to minimize the distance between the points within a cluster.
There is an algorithm that tries to minimize the distance of the points in a cluster with their centroid – the k-means clustering technique.
Let’s now take an example to understand how K-Means actually works:
We have these 8 points and we want to apply k-means to create clusters for these points. Here’s how we can do it.
Step 1: Choose the number of clusters k.
Step 2: Select k random points from the data as centroids:
Next, we randomly select the centroid for each cluster. Let’s say we want to have 2 clusters, so k is equal to 2 here. We then randomly select the centroid:
Here, the red and green circles represent the centroid for these clusters.
Step 3: Assign all the points to the closest cluster centroid
Once we have initialized the centroids, we assign each point to the closest cluster centroid:
Here you can see that the points which are closer to the red point are assigned to the red cluster whereas the points which are closer to the green point are assigned to the green cluster.
Step 4: Re-compute the centroids of newly formed clusters
Now, once we have assigned all of the points to either cluster, the next step is to compute the centroids of newly formed clusters:
Here, the red and green crosses are the new centroids.
Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4
We then repeat steps 3 and 4:
The step of computing the centroid and assigning all the points to the cluster based on their distance from the centroid is a single iteration. But wait – when should we stop this process? It can’t run till eternity, right?
Stopping Criteria for K-Means Clustering:
There are essentially three stopping criteria that can be adopted to stop the K-means algorithm:
Centroids of newly formed clusters do not change
Points remain in the same cluster
Maximum number of iterations are reached
53. How to test Accuracy of K-means clustering Algorithm?
To evaluate accuracy of K-Means clustering algorithm we need to do Silhouette analysis.
Silhouette analysis can be used to determine the degree of separation between clusters. For each sample:
Compute the average distance from all data points in the same cluster (ai).
Compute the average distance from all data points in the closest cluster (bi).
Compute the coefficient:
The coefficient can take values in the interval [-1, 1].
If it is 0 –> the sample is very close to the neighboring clusters.
It it is 1 –> the sample is far away from the neighboring clusters.
It it is -1 –> the sample is assigned to the wrong clusters.
Therefore, we want the coefficients to be as big as possible and close to 1 to have a good clusters.
So for every K we should calculate silhouette score, and we can see the performance by graphs.
54. What are the disadvantages of K-Means clustering?
Following are the Disadvantages of K-Means Clustering:
K-Means assumes spherical shapes of clusters (with radius equal to the distance between the centroid and the furthest data point) and doesn’t work well when clusters are in different shapes such as elliptical clusters.
If there is overlapping between clusters, k-Means doesn’t have an intrinsic measure for uncertainty for the examples belong to the overlapping region in order to determine for which cluster to assign each data point.
K-Means may still cluster the data even if it can’t be clustered such as data that comes from uniform distributions.
55. What is XG Boost ?
XGboost is the most widely used algorithm in machine learning, whether the problem is a classification or a regression problem. It is known for its good performance as compared to all other machine learning algorithms.
“It is the execution of gradient boosted decision trees that is designed for high speed and performance.”
Gradient boosting is a method where the new models are created that computes the error in the previous model and then leftover is added to make the final prediction.
56. Why XG Boost is a powerful Machine leaning algorithm ?
Following are the reason behind the good performance of XGboost:
This is considered to be as a dominant factor of the algorithm. Regularization is a technique that is used to get rid of overfitting of the model.
We use cross-validation by importing the function from sklearn but XGboost is enabled with inbuilt CV function.
It is designed in such a way that it can handle missing values. It finds out the trends in the missing values and apprehends them.
It gives the support to objective functions. They are the function used to evaluate the performance of the model and also it can handle the user-defined validation metrics.
Save and load:
It gives the power to save the data matrix and reload afterwards that saves the resources and time.